Agricultural waste torrefaction to bio-char

Agricultural waste torrefaction to bio-char


Final Products Final Product: Solid biofuels (Bio-char)
Required Inputs Technology: Sorting, shredding, torrefaction, pelletizing operations units
Competing Products Competing Products: Solid fossil fuel (Coal mostly)


Complexity – Type of Process Type of Process: Thermal treatment (Torrefaction)
Technology Technology: Sorting, shredding, torrefaction, pelletizing operations units
Equipment and Material Equipment & Material: Torrefaction reactors, combustor, cooler, densification equipment
Human Resources Manual labor, engineers

Advantages and Risks

Competitive Advantage High demand and high calorific value
Barriers to Entry Barriers to Entry: Securing large amounts of supply
Key Stakeholders Key Stakeholders: Local farmers to providing agricultural waste as biomass, factories providing waste as biomass, factories as energy consumers, local waste traders
Special Regulations NA
Risks and Mitigation Measures Risks and Mitigation Measures: High power of suppliers and possible competition with them in case they tried to copy the business. Mitigation measures are diversification of supply

Economic Features

Revenue Stream Revenue Stream: Sales of bio-char

The inputs and technology would cost an average of 3.6M EGP

Note: This CAPEX represents the indicative investment size, however, this investment opportunity can grow in implementation to a larger-sized investment.

Investment Size Small (between 500k-5M EGP)


Location of Supply Supply is mostly in Delta region and Upper Egypt
Preferred operation regions: Ismailia, Delta Region, Upper Egypt
* Source of the information: The above figures were updated by Chemonics Egypt for UNIDO in 2023


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