Municipal Solid waste (MSW) and Industrial Waste to shredded Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) for energy Intensive industries

Municipal Solid waste (MSW) and Industrial Waste to shredded Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) for energy Intensive industries


Final Products Alternative fuel in the form of shredded and compacted RDF
Required Inputs Fluff sorted energy-rich fraction (ERF) of MSW
Competing Products Fossil fuel and Biomass


Complexity – Type of Process Material Handling – Mechanical processing
Technology ERF sorting, dehumidification, shredding, compacting
Equipment and Material Screen, shredder, baler
Human Resources Labor, machines operators, drivers

Advantages and Risks

Competitive Advantage Low-cost fuel for energy-intensive industries that meet environmental standards set by the government and lower total expenditures on increasingly expensive conventional energy due to subsidy removal
Barriers to Entry Securing a continuous level of supply to satisfy the high demand of factories
Key Stakeholders Local waste collectors, factories providing waste as RDF, factories as product consumers, local waste traders
Special Regulations NA
Risks and Mitigation Measures Complicated or absent regulations for landfill concession, local traders affect the supply levels of MSW, as well as maintaining the calorific value of the RDF, so it’s important to have a diverse supply of MSW in order to ensure consistency in both quantity and quality of end product. Scattered sources of supply complicate logistics and increase overall costs of transportation, therefore optimizing the location of the

Economic Features

Revenue Stream Sales of shredded RDF, sales of recyclables (if available)

CAPEX The inputs and technology would cost an average of 5.2M EGP

Note: This CAPEX represents the indicative investment size, however, this investment opportunity can grow in implementation to a larger-sized investment.

Investment Size Medium (between 5-50M EGP)


Location of Supply Supply is mostly in the Delta region and Greater Cairo Area, but Upper Egypt also could be a key location of supply especially cities around cement factories
Greater Cairo Area, Suez Canal Region, Delta, and Upper Egypt
* Source of the information: The above figures were updated by Chemonics Egypt for UNIDO in 2023


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